Cymbalta Drug Interactions

Cymbalta® duloxetine HCI
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Cymbalta Drug Interactions

  • Abciximab: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) like duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication in patients receiving abciximab. Monitor the patient closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
  • Acebutolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of acebutolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
  • Acetaminophen; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced dihydrocodeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Concomitant use may increase dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, dihydromorphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase dihydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to dihydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
  • Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as pentazocine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
  • Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tramadol. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In one case, the addition of tramadol to extended-release venlafaxine (300 mg/day) and mirtazapine (30 mg/day) likely caused serotonin syndrome. A patient developed agitation, confusion, severe shivering, diaphoresis, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, mydriasis, tachycardia, and fever within 7 weeks of taking tramadol 400 mg daily. He had taken 300 mg tramadol without difficulty. Discontinuation of the 3 drugs and rehydration led to symptom resolution over 36 hours. Reinstitution of the antidepressants 3 days after patient presentation was uneventful. Also, duloxetine may inhibit the formation of the active M1 metabolite of tramadol by inhibiting CYP2D6. The inhibition of this metabolite may decrease the analgesic effectiveness of tramadol but increase the level of the parent compound, which has more serotonergic activity than the metabolite. The risk for serious adverse effects such as seizures and serotonin syndrome may be increased. Patients receiving tramadol in combination with an SNRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, or other adverse effects.
  • Aliskiren: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.

Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Alteplase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Ambrisentan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Amiodarone: (Moderate) Monitor for adverse effects associated with increased exposure to duloxetine if amiodarone is coadministered. Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of amiodarone and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension; monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary. Amiodarone is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, while duloxetine is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrate.
Amitriptyline: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Amitriptyline; Chlordiazepoxide: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Amlodipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Amoxapine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have central serotonergic properties such as amoxapine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. In addition, duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6, and amoxapine is partially metabolized by this isoenzyme. It is possible that duloxetine could increase the risk of cyclic antidepressant-related side effects or toxicity.
Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as amphetamines. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. In addition, the MAOI activity of amphetamines may be of concern with the use of drugs that have serotonergic activity. A man developed marked agitation, anxiety, diaphoresis, shivering, tachycardia, tremor, generalized hypertonia, hyperreflexia, 1 to 2 beats of inducible ankle clonus, frequent myoclonic jerking, and tonic spasm of the right side of his orbicularis oris muscle while taking dexamphetamine and venlafaxine. Cessation of both drugs and administration of cyproheptadine led to a stepwise heart rate reduction and complete symptom resolution. Patients receiving SNRIs and amphetamines should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. The SNRI and amphetamine should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Anagrelide: (Moderate) Anagrelide has been shown to inhibit CYP1A2. In theory, coadministration of anagrelide with substrates of CYP1A2, including duloxetine, could lead to increases in the serum concentrations of these drugs and, thus, adverse effects. Patients receiving anagrelide and duloxetine concomitantly should be monitored for increased toxicity of duloxetine. Monitor the patient for signs of excessive serotonin activity. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Anticoagulants: (Major) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving anticoagulants. Elevations in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin and INR values have been reported post-marketing when venlafaxine was added to established warfarin therapy. The causality and mechanism of this potential interaction have not been established. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with an anticoagulant medication and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Because aripiprazole is partially metabolized by CYP2D6, increased aripiprazole plasma concentrations may occur during concurrent use of moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as duloxetine. If these agents are used in combination, the patient should be carefully monitored for aripiprazole-related adverse reactions. Because aripiprazole is also metabolized by CYP3A4, patients receiving a combination of a CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitor should have their oral aripiprazole dose reduced to one-quarter (25%) of the usual dose with subsequent adjustments based upon clinical response. Adults receiving a combination of a CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitor for more than 14 days should have their Abilify Maintena dose reduced from 400 mg/month to 200 mg/month or from 300 mg/month to 160 mg/month, respectively. There are no dosing recommendations for Aristada or Aristada Initio during use of a mild to moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Aripiprazole dosage adjustments are not required when aripiprazole is added as adjunctive treatment to antidepressants for major depressive disorder provided that the manufacturer’s dosing guidelines for this indication are followed.
Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Moderate) Lumefantrine is an inhibitor and duloxetine is a substrate/inhibitor of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme; therefore, coadministration may lead to increased duloxetine concentrations. Concomitant use warrants caution due to the potential for increased side effects.
Asenapine: (Moderate) Duloxetine is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 and may decrease the clearance of atypical antipsychotics that are CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 substrates including asenapine. Decreased metabolism of asenapine may lead to adverse reactions such as extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, asenapine is associated with a risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 inhibitors such as duloxetine. In vitro studies indicate that CYP1A2 is a primary metabolic pathway of asenapine.
Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced dihydrocodeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Concomitant use may increase dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, dihydromorphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase dihydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to dihydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with duloxetine as there is a potential for elevated duloxetine and cobicistat concentrations. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate/inhibitor. Cobicistat is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Atenolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of atenolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of atenolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Patients should be monitored for adverse effects associated with atomoxetine administration, such as nausea/vomiting, drowsiness, fatigue, abdominal pain, or decreased appetite, during concurrent use of duloxetine. A dosage adjustment of atomoxetine may be needed in normal populations (also known as extensive metabolizers) when atomoxetine is administered with inhibitors of the CYP2D6 enzyme. Atomoxetine is primarily a substrate for the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2D6. In vitro studies suggest that coadministration of CYP2D6 inhibitors to poor metabolizers will not further increase the plasma concentrations of atomoxetine.
Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Severe) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Azilsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Benazepril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of nadolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Severe) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Benzphetamine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as amphetamines. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. In addition, the MAOI activity of amphetamines may be of concern with the use of drugs that have serotonergic activity. A man developed marked agitation, anxiety, diaphoresis, shivering, tachycardia, tremor, generalized hypertonia, hyperreflexia, 12 beats of inducible ankle clonus, frequent myoclonic jerking, and tonic spasm of the right side of his orbicularis oris muscle while taking dexamphetamine and venlafaxine. Cessation of both drugs and administration of cyproheptadine led to a stepwise heart rate reduction and complete symptom resolution. Patients receiving an SNRI and an amphetamine should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. The SNRI and amphetamine should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Betaxolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of betaxolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of bisoprolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of bisoprolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Bosentan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Because brexpiprazole is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, the manufacturer recommends that the brexpiprazole dose be reduced to one-quarter (25%) of the usual dose in patients receiving a moderate to strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 in combination with a moderate to strong inhibitor of CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. If duloxetine is used in combination with brexpiprazole and a moderate to strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, the brexpiprazole dose should be adjusted and the patient should be carefully monitored for brexpiprazole-related adverse reactions.
Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of timolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Buprenorphine: (Major) Concurrent use of opioids, such as buprenorphine, with other drugs that modulate serotonergic function, such as SNRIs, has resulted in serotonin syndrome in some cases. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If combination treatment is required, patients should be carefully observed, particularly during treatment initiation and during dose adjustments of the serotonergic drug; discontinue buprenorphine if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Concurrent use of opioids, such as buprenorphine, with other drugs that modulate serotonergic function, such as SNRIs, has resulted in serotonin syndrome in some cases. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If combination treatment is required, patients should be carefully observed, particularly during treatment initiation and during dose adjustments of the serotonergic drug; discontinue buprenorphine if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Bupropion: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with bupropion. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Bupropion is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with bupropion. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Bupropion is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Buspirone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as buspirone and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be initiated.
Cabergoline: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties, such as cabergoline. Cabergoline has minimal affinity for serotonin receptors, possibly reducing the risk of this interaction compared to the chemically related ergot alkaloids. However, patients receiving cabergoline with an SNRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Calcium-channel blockers: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Candesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Consider a dose adjustment of duloxetine when coadministered with cannabidiol. Coadministration may alter plasma concentrations of duloxetine resulting in an increased risk of adverse reactions and/or decreased efficacy. Duloxetine is a sensitive CYP1A2 substrate. In vitro data predicts inhibition or induction of CYP1A2 by cannabidiol potentially resulting in clinically significant interactions.
Captopril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Carteolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of carteolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Carvedilol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of carvedilol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Celecoxib: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Central-acting adrenergic agents: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced dihydrocodeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Concomitant use may increase dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, dihydromorphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase dihydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to dihydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced dihydrocodeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Concomitant use may increase dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, dihydromorphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase dihydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to dihydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of chlorpromazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) since elevations in plasma concentrations of chlorpromazine may occur. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates and duloxetine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. In addition, chlorpromazine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; therefore, cardiac effects are possible.
Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Cilostazol: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Cimetidine: (Moderate) Use caution during coadministration of duloxetine and cimetidine; duloxetine concentrations may be increased. Duloxetine is a CYP1A2 substrate; cimetidine is a weak CYP1A2 inhibitor.
Cinacalcet: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with cinacalcet. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Cinacalcet is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Ciprofloxacin: (Major) Coadministration of duloxetine and potent inhibitors of CYP1A2, such as ciprofloxacin, should be avoided. Duloxetine is partially metabolized by CYP1A2. One study involving a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor in concomitant use with duloxetine showed that duloxetine exposure was significantly increased.
Citalopram: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Clevidipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Clomipramine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Clonidine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Clozapine: (Moderate) Duloxetine is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2, two of the isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of clozapine. Treatment with clozapine has been associated with QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), cardiac arrest, and sudden death. Elevated plasma concentrations of clozapine occurring through CYP inhibition may potentially increase the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias, sedation, anticholinergic effects, seizures, orthostasis, or other adverse effects. According to the manufacturer, patients receiving clozapine in combination with an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6 should be monitored for adverse reactions. Consideration should be given to reducing the clozapine dose if necessary. If the inhibitor is discontinued after dose adjustments are made, monitor for lack of clozapine effectiveness and consider increasing the clozapine dose if necessary.
Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with duloxetine as there is a potential for elevated duloxetine and cobicistat concentrations. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate/inhibitor. Cobicistat is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with duloxetine as there is a potential for elevated duloxetine and cobicistat concentrations. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate/inhibitor. Cobicistat is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Cobicistat; Elvitegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with duloxetine as there is a potential for elevated duloxetine and cobicistat concentrations. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate/inhibitor. Cobicistat is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Cocaine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as cocaine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Codeine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of codeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced codeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue codeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when codeine is being used for cough. Concomitant use may increase codeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, morphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of codeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease codeine plasma concentrations and increase morphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Codeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to morphine, and by CYP3A4 to norcodeine; norcodeine does not have analgesic properties. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Cyclobenzaprine: (Major) Cautious use of cyclobenzaprine and drugs that increase serotonin concentrations such as serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) is advised because of the possibility of serotonin syndrome. If these drugs must be used together, closely monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome. If such a reaction develops, immediately discontinue cyclobenzaprine and the SSRI. A suspected case of serotonin syndrome was noted in a man who took duloxetine, opiates, and cyclobenzaprine. The man developed worsening confusion, hallucinations, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tremors, marked agitation, spontaneous sustained clonus, and multifocal myoclonus.but recovered after duloxetine and cyclobenzaprine discontinuation and cyproheptadine initiation.
Dacomitinib: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with dacomitinib. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Dacomitinib is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Darifenacin: (Moderate) Duloxetine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of darifenacin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Clinicians should monitor patients for increased anticholinergic effects when CYP2D6 inhibitors are coadministered with darifenacin; dosage adjustments of darifenacin may be necessary.
Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with duloxetine as there is a potential for elevated duloxetine and cobicistat concentrations. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate/inhibitor. Cobicistat is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when cobicistat is administered with duloxetine as there is a potential for elevated duloxetine and cobicistat concentrations. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate/inhibitor. Cobicistat is a substrate/inhibitor of CYP2D6.
Desipramine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Desvenlafaxine: (Severe) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) including venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, levomilnacipran, and milnacipran should not be coadministered with each other. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SNRI to another SNRI.
Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dexmethylphenidate: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dexmethylphenidate and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). There are rare reports of serotonin syndrome occurring during use of other serotonergic antidepressants (i.e., SSRIs) and methylphenidate, a racemic compound containing dexmethylphenidate. There is also a case of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reaction occurring in a child on chronic methylphenidate therapy 45 minutes after ingesting a dose of venlafaxine. It is unclear if the reaction was the result of a drug interaction. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical management should be implemented.
Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Promethazine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as dextromethorphan. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated. (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with quinidine. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Quinidine is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Diazoxide: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Diclofenac: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Diflunisal: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of dihydrocodeine and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome, reduced dihydrocodeine efficacy, and potential for opioid withdrawal symptoms. Discontinue dihydrocodeine if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Concomitant use may increase dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations, but decrease the plasma concentration of the active metabolite, dihydromorphine, resulting in reduced efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage increase of dihydrocodeine until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease dihydrocodeine plasma concentrations and increase dihydromorphine plasma concentrations resulting in prolonged opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider reducing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Dihydrocodeine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to dihydromorphine, and by CYP3A4. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Diltiazem: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Disulfiram: (Moderate) Co-administration of duloxetine and potent inhibitors of CYP1A2 should be avoided. Duloxetine is partially metabolized by CYP1A2. One study involving a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor in concomitant use with duloxetine showed that duloxetine exposure was significantly increased. Concurrent use of duloxetine and disulfiram, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, may result in excessive serotonin activity. Careful monitoring is recommended if concurrent therapy is considered necessary.
Diuretics: (Moderate) Patients receiving a diuretic during treatment with venlafaxine may be at greater risk of developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Hyponatremia due to SIADH may occur during therapy with SNRIs, including venlafaxine. Cases involving serum sodium levels lower than 110 mmol/l have been reported. Hyponatremia may be potentiated by agents which can cause sodium depletion such as diuretics. Discontinuation of the SNRI should be considered in patients who develop symptomatic hyponatremia.
Dolasetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering dolasetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as duloxetine. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue dolasetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of timolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Doxazosin: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Doxepin: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) Doxercalciferol is converted in the liver to 1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol, the major active metabolite, and 1-alpha, 24-dihydroxyvitamin D2, a minor metabolite. Although not specifically studied, cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors including duloxetine may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol, thereby decreasing the formation of the active metabolite and thus, decreasing efficacy. Patients should be monitored for a decrease in efficacy if duloxetine is coadministered with doxercalciferol.
Doxorubicin: (Major) Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major CYP2D6 substrate. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP2D6, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of duloxetine and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity.
Dutasteride; Tamsulosin: (Moderate) Use caution when administering tamsulosin with a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor such as duloxetine. Tamsulosin is extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 hepatic enzymes. In clinical evaluation, concomitant treatment with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor resulted in increases in tamsulosin exposure; interactions with moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors have not been evaluated. If concomitant use in necessary, monitor patient closely for increased side effects.
Eliglustat: (Major) In extensive or intermediate CYP2D6 metabolizers (EMs or IMs), coadministration of duloxetine and eliglustat requires dosage reduction of eliglustat to 84 mg PO once daily; however, coadministration of eliglustat with both duloxetine and a strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitor is contraindicated. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate and moderate inhibitor; eliglustat is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A substrate and a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Coadministration with CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase eliglustat exposure and the risk of serious adverse events (e.g., QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias). In addition, coadministration of eliglustat with CYP2D6 substrates (e.g., duloxetine) may result in increased concentrations of the concomitant drug; monitor patients closely for adverse events, and consider reducing the dosage of duloxetine and titrating to clinical effect.
Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Eplerenone: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Eprosartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Eptifibatide: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Ergot alkaloids: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as ergot alkaloids. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Escitalopram: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Esmolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of esmolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Esomeprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Estrogens: (Minor) Estrogens are partially metabolized by CYP3A4. Drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 such as duloxetine may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and cause estrogen-related side effects such as nausea and breast tenderness. Patients receiving estrogens should be monitored for an increase in adverse events.
Ethanol: (Major) Duloxetine should not be prescribed to patients with substantial ethanol use. Although duloxetine does not appear to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by ethanol, substantial ethanol consumption during treatment with duloxetine has resulted in severe, and sometimes fatal, hepatotoxicity.
Etodolac: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Felodipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Fenoldopam: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Fenoprofen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Fentanyl: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as fentanyl. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Careful monitoring is recommended during co-administration of fentanyl and duloxetine for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome or other serious effects.
Fluoxetine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Fluoxetine; Olanzapine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (Moderate) Duloxetine is an inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 and should be used cautiously with atypical antipsychotics metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 such as olanzapine. Plasma concentrations of atypical antipsychotics primarily metabolized via CYP1A2, such as olanzapine, may increase substantially during concurrent use. Decreased metabolism of olanzapine may lead to clinically important adverse reactions, such as orthostatic hypotension, sedation, or extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, olanzapine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation and should be used cautiously with CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inhibitors such as duloxetine.
Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of fluphenazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) since elevations in plasma concentrations of fluphenazine may occur. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates and duloxetine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. In addition, fluphenazine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; therefore, cardiac effects are possible.
Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Fluvoxamine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In addition, when fluvoxamine, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, was coadministered with duloxetine to male subjects (n=14) the duloxetine AUC was increased approximately 6-fold, the Cmax was increased about 2.5-fold, and duloxetine half-life was increased approximately 3-fold. The increased duloxetine exposure induced by fluvoxamine would potentially increase the risk of serotonin-related adverse effects; therefore, the manufacturer recommends avoiding concurrent use of these agents.
Fosinopril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Gefitinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in gefitinib-related adverse reactions if coadministration with duloxetine is necessary; the risk is increased in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Based on in vitro data, gefitinib is metabolized to O-desmethyl gefitinib by CYP2D6 and duloxetine is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. In healthy CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the concentration of O-desmethyl gefitinib was not measurable and mean exposure to gefitinib was 2-fold higher compared to extensive metabolizers. The impact of CYP2D6 inhibitors on gefitinib pharmacokinetics has not been evaluated; however, the manufacturer recommends precautions based on exposure in patients with poor CYP2D6 metabolism.
Granisetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering granisetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as duloxetine. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue granisetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Guanabenz: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Guanfacine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Haloperidol: (Moderate) Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Substantial increases in concentrations of antipsychotics primarily metabolized via CYP2D6, such as haloperidol may also occur. Haloperidol is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation and should be used cautiously with CYP2D6 inhibitors such as duloxetine.
Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Hydralazine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Irbesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Lisinopril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Losartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Metoprolol: (Moderate) Monitor for increased metoprolol adverse reactions including bradycardia and hypotension during coadministration. A dosage reduction for metoprolol may be needed based on response. Concurrent use may increase metoprolol exposure. Metoprolol is a CYP2D6 substrate; duloxetine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. In the presence of another moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, the AUC of metoprolol was increased by 3.29-fold with no effect on the cardiovascular response to metoprolol.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Propranolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of propranolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Quinapril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Telmisartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Valsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Hydrocodone: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Severe) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued. (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Iloperidone: (Moderate) Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 and may decrease the clearance of atypical antipsychotics that are CYP2D6 substrates including iloperidone. Decreased metabolism of iloperidone may lead to clinically important adverse reactions that are associated with antipsychotic use, such as extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, iloperidone is associated with a risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) and should be used cautiously with CYP2D6 inhibitors such as duloxetine.
Iloprost: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Imipramine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Indomethacin: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Iobenguane I 131: (Major) Discontinue serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors for at least 5 half-lives before the administration of the dosimetry dose or a therapeutic dose of iobenguane I-131. Do not restart serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors until at least 7 days after each iobenguane I-131 dose. Drugs that reduce catecholamine uptake or deplete catecholamine stores, such as serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, may interfere with iobenguane I-131 uptake into cells and interfere with dosimetry calculations resulting in altered iobenguane I-131 efficacy.
Irbesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Isoniazid, INH: (Major) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, concurrent use of duloxetine and medications with MAO-like activity, such as isoniazid, INH, should be avoided if possible. Isoniazid is chemically related to iproniazid, a drug that was known to possess MAO inhibiting activity. Although isoniazid does not inhibit mitochondrial MAO, it does appear to inhibit plasma MAO and may possess enough MAO inhibiting activity to produce clinical symptoms consistent with serotonergic excess when combined with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, duloxetine and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, concurrent use of duloxetine and medications with MAO-like activity, such as isoniazid, INH, should be avoided if possible. Isoniazid is chemically related to iproniazid, a drug that was known to possess MAO inhibiting activity. Although isoniazid does not inhibit mitochondrial MAO, it does appear to inhibit plasma MAO and may possess enough MAO inhibiting activity to produce clinical symptoms consistent with serotonergic excess when combined with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, duloxetine and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, concurrent use of duloxetine and medications with MAO-like activity, such as isoniazid, INH, should be avoided if possible. Isoniazid is chemically related to iproniazid, a drug that was known to possess MAO inhibiting activity. Although isoniazid does not inhibit mitochondrial MAO, it does appear to inhibit plasma MAO and may possess enough MAO inhibiting activity to produce clinical symptoms consistent with serotonergic excess when combined with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, duloxetine and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
Isradipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Kava Kava, Piper methysticum: (Moderate) The German Commission E and other groups warn that any substances that act on the CNS, including psychopharmacologic agents like venlafaxine, may interact with the phytomedicinal kava kava. This interactions are probably pharmacodynamic in nature, or result from additive mechanisms of action.
Ketoprofen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Ketorolac: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Labetalol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of labetalol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Leflunomide: (Moderate) Closely monitor for reduced efficacy of duloxetine if coadministered with leflunomide. An adjustment of the duloxetine dose may be required. Following oral administration, leflunomide is metabolized to an active metabolite, teriflunomide, which is responsible for essentially all of leflunomide’s in vivo activity. In vivo data suggest that teriflunomide is a weak inducer of CYP1A2. Coadministration of teriflunomide with CYP1A2 substrates, such as duloxetine, may decrease duloxetine exposure and lead to a reduction in efficacy.
Levomilnacipran: (Severe) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as levomilnacipran and duloxetine should not be coadministered. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SNRI to another SNRI.
Linezolid: (Severe) The use of linezolid with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as duloxetine is contraindicated due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Linezolid is an antibiotic that also possesses weak non-selective MAO-inhibiting activity which could have additive effects with SNRIs on central serotonin activity. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. In a patient who requires urgent treatment of a psychiatric condition, interventions other than an SNRI, including hospitalization, should be considered. In some cases, a patient already receiving duloxetine may require urgent treatment with linezolid. If acceptable alternatives to linezolid are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid are determined to outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome in an individual patient, duloxetine should be stopped promptly, and linezolid can be administered. The patient should be monitored for symptoms of serotonin syndrome for 5 days or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid, whichever comes first. Therapy with duloxetine may be resumed 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid.
Lisdexamfetamine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as lisdexamfetamine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. In addition, the MAOI activity of amphetamines may be of concern with the use of drugs that have serotonergic activity. A man developed marked agitation, anxiety, diaphoresis, shivering, tachycardia, tremor, generalized hypertonia, hyperreflexia, 1 to 2 beats of inducible ankle clonus, frequent myoclonic jerking, and tonic spasm of the right side of his orbicularis oris muscle while taking dexamphetamine and venlafaxine. Cessation of both drugs and administration of cyproheptadine led to a stepwise heart rate reduction and complete symptom resolution. Patients receiving SNRIs and amphetamines should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. The SNRI and amphetamine should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Lisinopril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Lithium: (Major) Lithium is an effective augmenting agent to antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression; however, lithium has been reported to have central serotonin-enhancing effects and may interact pharmacodynamically with duloxetine to cause serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and lithium should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated. One systematic review and meta-analysis of lithium augmentation of tricyclic and second generation antidepressants in major depression found no difference in discontinuation rate due to adverse events between the lithium and placebo groups. However, some data indicate that the elderly may have increased susceptibility to neurotoxicity (e.g., fine tremor, ataxia, severe memory impairment, and/or gait disturbances) from concurrent use of lithium and antidepressants, despite therapeutic lithium concentrations.
Loperamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of loperamide, a CYP2D6 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with duloxetine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for loperamide-associated adverse reactions, such as CNS effects and cardiac toxicities (i.e., syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, torsade de pointes, cardiac arrest).
Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) The plasma concentration of loperamide, a CYP2D6 substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with duloxetine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, monitor for loperamide-associated adverse reactions, such as CNS effects and cardiac toxicities (i.e., syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, torsade de pointes, cardiac arrest).
Lorcaserin: (Major) Based on the mechanism of action of lorcaserin and the theoretical potential for serotonin syndrome, use with extreme caution in combination with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, including, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) like signs and symptoms.
Losartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Macitentan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Maprotiline: (Major) Documentation is not available on the concurrent use of duloxetine with many CNS agents. Caution should be observed when administering duloxetine with other CNS-active drugs in the absence of clinical data regarding combined use. Examples of these drugs include the maprotiline. In addition, duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6, and maprotiline appears to be metabolized by this isozyme. It is possible that duloxetine could increase the risk of cyclic-antidepressant-induced side effects or toxicity.
Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Meloxicam: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Meperidine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as meperidine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as meperidine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Mesoridazine: (Major) Mesoridazine has an established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Agents that reduce mesoridazine metabolism, like duloxetine, may increase the risk for adverse cardiac events. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates, and duloxetine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor.
Methamphetamine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as amphetamines. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. In addition, the MAOI activity of amphetamines may be of concern with the use of drugs that have serotonergic activity. A man developed marked agitation, anxiety, diaphoresis, shivering, tachycardia, tremor, generalized hypertonia, hyperreflexia, 1 to 2 beats of inducible ankle clonus, frequent myoclonic jerking, and tonic spasm of the right side of his orbicularis oris muscle while taking dexamphetamine and venlafaxine. Cessation of both drugs and administration of cyproheptadine led to a stepwise heart rate reduction and complete symptom resolution. Patients receiving an SNRI and an amphetamine should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. The SNRI and amphetamine should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Severe) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
Methyldopa: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Methylene Blue: (Severe) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
Methylphenidate: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as methylphenidate and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of other serotonergic antidepressants (i.e., SSRIs) and methylphenidate. There is also a case of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reaction occurring in a child on chronic methylphenidate therapy 45 minutes after ingesting a dose of venlafaxine. It is unclear if the reaction was the result of a drug interaction. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical management should be implemented.
Metoclopramide: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that are dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In addition, metoclopramide may cause extrapyramidal reactions (e.g., acute dystonic reactions, pseudo-parkinsonism, akathisia, or tardive dyskinesia) and is contraindicated with other drugs that are likely to cause extrapyramidal effects. Dystonia, akathisia, trismus, torticollis, dyskinesia, tardive dyskinesia, pseudo-parkinsonism, and/or extrapyramidal disorder (unspecified) have been reported during use of SNRIs; however, these effects appear uncommon. Patients receiving concurrent treatment with dopamine antagonists may be more predisposed to these reactions. Case reports documenting an interaction between metoclopramide and other serotonergic agents (i.e., SSRIs) suggest that serotonin syndrome and/or movement disorders are possible during combined use of metoclopramide and SNRIs. Patients receiving SNRIs and metoclopramide should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, or other adverse effects.
Metoprolol: (Moderate) Monitor for increased metoprolol adverse reactions including bradycardia and hypotension during coadministration. A dosage reduction for metoprolol may be needed based on response. Concurrent use may increase metoprolol exposure. Metoprolol is a CYP2D6 substrate; duloxetine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. In the presence of another moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, the AUC of metoprolol was increased by 3.29-fold with no effect on the cardiovascular response to metoprolol.
Milnacipran: (Severe) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) including venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, levomilnacipran, and milnacipran should not be coadministered. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SNRI to another SNRI.
Minoxidil: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Mirabegron: (Moderate) Mirabegron is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 isoenzymes such as duloxetine may be increased when co-administered with mirabegron. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary.
Mirtazapine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as mirtazapine and duloxetine. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported between mirtazapine and other antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome occurs, serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
Moexipril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Severe) Due to the risk of serotonin syndrome, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) intended to treat psychiatric disorders are contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). MAOIs should not be used within 5 days of discontinuing treatment with duloxetine or within 7 days of discontinuing treatment with other SNRIs. Conversely, SNRIs should not be initiated within 14 days of stopping an MAOI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Morphine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution and careful monitoring are recommended when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as morphine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Morphine and the SNRI should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Morphine; Naltrexone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution and careful monitoring are recommended when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as morphine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Morphine and the SNRI should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Nabumetone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Nadolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of nadolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Naproxen: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Naproxen; Sumatriptan: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Nebivolol: (Moderate) Monitor for increased toxicity as well as increased therapeutic effect of nebivolol if coadministered with duloxetine. Nebivolol is metabolized by CYP2D6. Although data are lacking, CYP2D6 inhibitors, such as duloxetine, could potentially increase nebivolol plasma concentrations via CYP2D6 inhibition; the clinical significance of this potential interaction is unknown, but an increase in adverse effects is possible. In addition, orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of nebivolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension.
Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor for increased toxicity as well as increased therapeutic effect of nebivolol if coadministered with duloxetine. Nebivolol is metabolized by CYP2D6. Although data are lacking, CYP2D6 inhibitors, such as duloxetine, could potentially increase nebivolol plasma concentrations via CYP2D6 inhibition; the clinical significance of this potential interaction is unknown, but an increase in adverse effects is possible. In addition, orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of nebivolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Nefazodone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as nefazodone. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Netupitant, Fosnetupitant; Palonosetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering palonosetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as duloxetine. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue palonosetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
Nicardipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Nifedipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Nimodipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Nisoldipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Nitroglycerin: (Minor) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as antidepressants. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin is used concurrently with antidepressants.
Nitroprusside: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Nortriptyline: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Olanzapine: (Moderate) Duloxetine is an inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 and should be used cautiously with atypical antipsychotics metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 such as olanzapine. Plasma concentrations of atypical antipsychotics primarily metabolized via CYP1A2, such as olanzapine, may increase substantially during concurrent use. Decreased metabolism of olanzapine may lead to clinically important adverse reactions, such as orthostatic hypotension, sedation, or extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, olanzapine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation and should be used cautiously with CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inhibitors such as duloxetine.
Olmesartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Ondansetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering ondansetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as duloxetine. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue ondansetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
Oritavancin: (Moderate) Duloxetine is metabolized by CYP2D6; oritavancin is a weak CYP2D6 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of duloxetine may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently.
Oxaprozin: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Palonosetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering palonosetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as duloxetine. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue palonosetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
Paroxetine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Peginterferon Alfa-2b: (Moderate) Monitor for adverse effects associated with increased exposure to duloxetine if peginterferon alfa-2b is coadministered. Peginterferon alfa-2b is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, while duloxetine is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrate.
Penbutolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of penbutolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Pentazocine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as pentazocine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as pentazocine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Perindopril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Perphenazine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of perphenazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) since elevations in plasma concentrations of perphenazine may occur. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates, and SNRIs including duloxetine are CYP2D6 inhibitors. In addition, perphenazine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; therefore, cardiac effects are possible.
Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated. (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of perphenazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) since elevations in plasma concentrations of perphenazine may occur. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates, and SNRIs including duloxetine are CYP2D6 inhibitors. In addition, perphenazine is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; therefore, cardiac effects are possible.
Phenoxybenzamine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Phentermine: (Moderate) Use phentermine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) together with caution; use together may be safe and efficacious for some patients based on available data, provided the patient is on a stable antidepressant regimen and receives close clinical monitoring. Regular appointments to assess the efficacy of the weight loss treatment, the emergence of adverse events, and blood pressure monitoring are recommended. Watch for excessive serotonergic effects. Phentermine is related to the amphetamines, and there has been historical concern that phentermine might exhibit potential to cause serotonin syndrome or cardiovascular or pulmonary effects when combined with serotonergic agents. One case report describes adverse reactions with phentermine and fluoxetine. However, recent data suggest that phentermine’s effect on MAO inhibition and serotonin augmentation is minimal at therapeutic doses, and that phentermine does not additionally increase plasma serotonin levels when combined with other serotonergic agents. In large controlled clinical studies, patients were allowed to start therapy with phentermine or phentermine; topiramate extended-release for obesity along with their antidepressants (e.g., SSRIs or SNRIs, but not MAOIs or TCAs) as long as the antidepressant dose had been stable for at least 3 months prior to the initiation of phentermine, and the patient did not have suicidal ideation or more than 1 episode of major depression documented. In analyses of the results, therapy was generally well tolerated, especially at lower phentermine doses, based on discontinuation rates and reported adverse events. Because depression and obesity often coexist, the study data may be important to providing optimal therapies.
Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Use phentermine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) together with caution; use together may be safe and efficacious for some patients based on available data, provided the patient is on a stable antidepressant regimen and receives close clinical monitoring. Regular appointments to assess the efficacy of the weight loss treatment, the emergence of adverse events, and blood pressure monitoring are recommended. Watch for excessive serotonergic effects. Phentermine is related to the amphetamines, and there has been historical concern that phentermine might exhibit potential to cause serotonin syndrome or cardiovascular or pulmonary effects when combined with serotonergic agents. One case report describes adverse reactions with phentermine and fluoxetine. However, recent data suggest that phentermine’s effect on MAO inhibition and serotonin augmentation is minimal at therapeutic doses, and that phentermine does not additionally increase plasma serotonin levels when combined with other serotonergic agents. In large controlled clinical studies, patients were allowed to start therapy with phentermine or phentermine; topiramate extended-release for obesity along with their antidepressants (e.g., SSRIs or SNRIs, but not MAOIs or TCAs) as long as the antidepressant dose had been stable for at least 3 months prior to the initiation of phentermine, and the patient did not have suicidal ideation or more than 1 episode of major depression documented. In analyses of the results, therapy was generally well tolerated, especially at lower phentermine doses, based on discontinuation rates and reported adverse events. Because depression and obesity often coexist, the study data may be important to providing optimal therapies.
Phentolamine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Pimozide: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of pimozide and moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors such as duloxetine. Pimozide is metabolized primarily through CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. While the manufacturer has provided no guidance regarding pimozide use with mild or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors, concurrent use of the drug with more potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 is contraindicated. Elevated concentrations of pimozide can lead to QT prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death.
Pindolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of pindolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Piroxicam: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Prasugrel: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors (e.g., cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Prazosin: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Procarbazine: (Major) Concurrent use of procarbazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) should be avoided if possible. Procarbazine is a weak monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Since monoamine oxidase type A deaminates serotonin, administration of a non-selective MAO inhibitor concurrently with an SNRI can lead to serious reactions including serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. If combination therapy is necessary, patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of prochlorperazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) since elevations in plasma concentrations of prochlorperazine may occur. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates, and SNRIs including duloxetine are CYP2D6 inhibitors.
Propranolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of propranolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Protriptyline: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Quetiapine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with drugs that are dopamine antagonists such as quetiapine. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving quetiapine and an SNRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, or other adverse effects.
Quinapril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Quinidine: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with quinidine. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Quinidine is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Ramipril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Ranolazine: (Moderate) Ranolazine is metabolized mainly by CYP3A and to a lesser extent by CYP2D6. Metoclopramide is a known CYP2D6 inhibitor; coadministration with ranolazine may result in increased plasma concentrations of ranolazine. The manufacturer specifies that no dosage adjustment of ranolazine is necessary when coadministering CYP2D6 inhibitors. Until further data are available, it is prudent to cautiously monitor the concurrent use of ranolazine and significant CYP2D6 inhibitors since potential increases in plasma concentrations of ranolazine may result in adverse effects.
Rasagiline: (Major) It is recommended to avoid concurrent use of rasagiline and antidepressants, including serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Severe CNS toxicity with hyperpyrexia has been reported during concurrent use of antidepressants and selective or non-selective MAOIs. During post-marketing use of rasagiline, non-fatal cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during concomitant antidepressant administration. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. At least 2 weeks should elapse between stopping rasagiline treatment and beginning therapy with any antidepressant. Conversely, when discontinuing the antidepressant, it is advisable to wait the length of 4 to 5 half lives of the individual agent being discontinued prior to initiation with rasagiline.
Remifentanil: (Moderate) Concurrent use of remifentanil with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. If concurrent use is necessary, closely monitor the patient, particularly during remifentanil initiation and dosage adjustment. Discontinue remifentanil if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Reserpine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Reteplase, r-PA: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Riociguat: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Rofecoxib: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Rolapitant: (Major) Use caution if duloxetine and rolapitant are used concurrently, and monitor for duloxetine-related adverse effects. Duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate and rolapitant is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor; the inhibitory effect of rolapitant is expected to persist beyond 28 days for an unknown duration. Exposure to another CYP2D6 substrate, following a single dose of rolapitant increased about 3-fold on Days 8 and Day 22. The inhibition of CYP2D6 persisted on Day 28 with a 2.3-fold increase in the CYP2D6 substrate concentrations, the last time point measured.
Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Safinamide: (Severe) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
Salicylates: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Salsalate: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving aspirin, ASA or other salicylates which affect hemostasis. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Selexipag: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Serotonin-Receptor Agonists: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering a selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) like duloxetine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin-receptor agonists (e.g., almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan) because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during concurrent use of drugs from these drug classes. Some patients had used the combination previously without incident when serotonin syndrome occurred. Some cases have involved hospitalization. Serotonin syndrome consists of symptoms such as mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion, hallucinations), diaphoresis, hyperreflexia, hypertension, diarrhea, fever, tremor, and, in some instances, respiratory failure. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Careful monitoring for serotonin syndrome is recommended if combination therapy with is required. Risk factors can include a recent dose increase of the SNRI or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing SNRI regimen.
Sertraline: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Sibutramine: (Major) Sibutramine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering sibutramine with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients receiving sibutramine in combination with an SNRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions.
Sildenafil: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
St. John’s Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when coadministering drugs that have serotonergic properties such as St. John’s wort and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be initiated.
Streptokinase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Sulindac: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Tacrine: (Moderate) Co-administration of duloxetine and potent inhibitors of CYP1A2 should be avoided. Duloxetine is partially metabolized by CYP1A2. One study involving a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor in concomitant use with duloxetine showed that duloxetine exposure was significantly increased. Concurrent use of duloxetine and tacrine, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, may result in excessive serotonin activity. Careful monitoring is recommended if concurrent therapy is considered necessary.
Tadalafil: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Tamsulosin: (Moderate) Use caution when administering tamsulosin with a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor such as duloxetine. Tamsulosin is extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 hepatic enzymes. In clinical evaluation, concomitant treatment with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor resulted in increases in tamsulosin exposure; interactions with moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors have not been evaluated. If concomitant use in necessary, monitor patient closely for increased side effects.
Tapentadol: (Major) Caution is advised when tapentadol is coadministered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors as this combination may result in excessive concentrations of serotonin and/or norepinephrine and increase the potential for adverse cardiac events and serotonin syndrome development. If concomitant treatment is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, especially during initiation of the second therapy and after dosage adjustments (increases) of either agent.
Tedizolid: (Minor) Use caution with the concurrent use of tedizolid and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the theoretical risk of serotonin sydrome. Animal studies did not predict serotonergic effects; however, patients on concurrent SNRIs were excluded from clinical trials. Additionally, tedizolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak reversible, non-selective MAO inhibitor and monoamine oxidase type A deaminates serotonin; therefore, coadministration theoretically could lead to serious reactions including serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
Telmisartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Tenecteplase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Terazosin: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Terbinafine: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with terbinafine. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Terbinafine is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Teriflunomide: (Moderate) Use caution when administering teriflunomide and duloxetine concurrently. In vivo data suggest that teriflunomide is a weak inducer of CYP1A2. Coadministration of teriflunomide with CYP1A2 substrates, such as duloxetine, may decrease duloxetine exposure and lead to a reduction in efficacy.
Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) Close monitoring of theophylline levels is advisable during concurrent use of duloxetine and theophylline. Theophylline is a substrate for CYP1A2 and duloxetine is a CYP1A2 inhibitor. In two clinical studies, the average increase in the theophylline AUC was 7% (range: 1%-15%) and 20% (range: 13%-27%) when co-administered with duloxetine.
Thiethylperazine: (Moderate) Duloxetine is an inhibitor of CYP2D6, and concurrent use with CYP2D6 substrates, such as the phenothiazines, may result in increased plasma concentrations, and potential increased risk for phenothiazine-related side effects.
Thioridazine: (Severe) Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 and the use of thioridazine concomitantly with CYP2D6 inhibitors is contraindicated due to the theoretical risk of prolongation of QTc interval and subsequent arrhythmias, or other serious side effects, due to elevated serum concentrations of thioridazine.
Thrombolytic Agents: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors (e.g., cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Ticlopidine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Timolol: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of timolol and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. It is advisable to monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Tipranavir: (Moderate) Monitor for increased duloxetine-related adverse effects if coadministered with tipranavir. Concurrent use may result in increased duloxetine exposure resulting in excessive serotonin activity. Tipranavir is a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; duloxetine is a CYP2D6 substrate. Coadministration with another strong CYP2D6 inhibitor increased the duloxetine AUC by about 60%.
Tirofiban: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Tolmetin: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Tramadol: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tramadol. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In one case, the addition of tramadol to extended-release venlafaxine (300 mg/day) and mirtazapine (30 mg/day) likely caused serotonin syndrome. A patient developed agitation, confusion, severe shivering, diaphoresis, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, mydriasis, tachycardia, and fever within 7 weeks of taking tramadol 400 mg daily. He had taken 300 mg tramadol without difficulty. Discontinuation of the 3 drugs and rehydration led to symptom resolution over 36 hours. Reinstitution of the antidepressants 3 days after patient presentation was uneventful. Also, duloxetine may inhibit the formation of the active M1 metabolite of tramadol by inhibiting CYP2D6. The inhibition of this metabolite may decrease the analgesic effectiveness of tramadol but increase the level of the parent compound, which has more serotonergic activity than the metabolite. The risk for serious adverse effects such as seizures and serotonin syndrome may be increased. Patients receiving tramadol in combination with an SNRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, or other adverse effects.
Trandolapril: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Trazodone: (Major) Coadministration may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs, including duloxetine, both when taken alone, but especially when coadministered with other serotonergic agents. Trazodone blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated. Because psychoactive drugs may have additive CNS effects, be alert for drowsiness or other CNS complaints.
Treprostinil: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Tricyclic antidepressants: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Trifluoperazine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of trifluoperazine and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) since elevations in plasma concentrations of trifluoperazine may occur. Phenothiazines are CYP2D6 substrates, and SNRIs including duloxetine are CYP2D6 inhibitors.
Trimipramine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as tricyclic antidepressants. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Clinicians should also be alert for pharmacokinetic interactions between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs. Duloxetine and venlafaxine are inhibitors of CYP2D6, and many TCAs are metabolized by this isozyme. Duloxetine increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of desipramine 1.7-fold and the AUC 2.9-fold in one study. One case report documented a first-time seizure in a patient receiving venlafaxine and trimipramine at therapeutic dosages. Patients receiving these combinations should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects. Patients should be informed of the possible increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If serotonin syndrome occurs, duloxetine and the concomitant serotonergic agent should be discontinued and symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Urokinase: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Valdecoxib: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by duloxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Mmonitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding when duloxetine is coadministered with NSAIDs.
Valerian, Valeriana officinalis: (Moderate) The German Commission E and other groups warn that any substances that act on the CNS, including psychopharmacologic agents, may interact with the phytomedicinal valerian, Valeriana officinalis. These interactions are probably pharmacodynamic in nature, or result from additive mechanisms of action.
Valsartan: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of vemurafenib and duloxetine may result in increased duloxetine concentrations. Vemurafenib is a CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inhibitor and duloxetine is a substrate of these isoenzymes. Monitor the patient for signs of excessive serotonin activity.
Venlafaxine: (Severe) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) including venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, levomilnacipran, and milnacipran should not be coadministered. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. It is advisable to monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome during an overlapping transition from one SNRI to another SNRI.
Verapamil: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
Vilazodone: (Major) Due to possible additive effects on serotonin concentrations, it is advisable to avoid combining serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) with vilazodone. Interactions between vilazodone and serotonergic agents can lead to serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Patients receiving vilazodone and an SNRI should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and during dosage increases. Vilazodone and the SNRI should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome occurs and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving platelet inhibitors (e.g., cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking an SNRI with a platelet inhibitor and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
Vortioxetine: (Major) Due to similarity of pharmacology and the potential for additive adverse effects, including serotonin syndrome, vortioxetine should generally not be administered with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and milnacipran. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, vortioxetine and concurrent serotonergic agents should be discontinued.
Zileuton: (Moderate) Co-administration of duloxetine and potent inhibitors of CYP1A2 should be avoided. Duloxetine is partially metabolized by CYP1A2. One study involving a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor in concomitant use with duloxetine showed that duloxetine exposure was significantly increased. Concurrent use of duloxetine and zileuton, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, may result in excessive serotonin activity. Careful monitoring is recommended if concurrent therapy is considered necessary.
Zolpidem: (Moderate) Disorientation, delusions, or hallucinations have been reported rarely during co-administration of zolpidem and antidepressants. The duration of the visual hallucinations has ranged from 30 minutes to 7 hours. The interaction is thought to be pharmacodynamic in nature; therefore, a similar reaction is possible with duloxetine. Data from a clinical study in which SSRI-treated patients were given immediate-release zolpidem revealed that four of the seven discontinuations during double-blind treatment with zolpidem (n = 95) were associated with impaired concentration, continuing or aggravated depression, and manic reaction.

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Average Joe

Welcome to the Average Joe Weekly blog. This is basically my place on the web where I can help spread some of the knowledge that I have accumulated over the years. I served 10+ years in the Marine Corps on Active Duty, but that was some 25 years ago.

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  • Average Joe

    Welcome to the Average Joe Weekly blog. This is basically my place on the web where I can help spread some of the knowledge that I have accumulated over the years. I served 10+ years in the Marine Corps on Active Duty, but that was some 25 years ago.

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By Average Joe

Welcome to the Average Joe Weekly blog. This is basically my place on the web where I can help spread some of the knowledge that I have accumulated over the years. I served 10+ years in the Marine Corps on Active Duty, but that was some 25 years ago.

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